What is Acquisition in Classical Conditioning?
Acquisition in classical conditioning refers to the initial stage of learning when a previously neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus that naturally elicits a response. It is during this period that the neutral stimulus gradually gains the ability to evoke the response on its own.
In a famous experiment conducted by Ivan Pavlov with dogs, he paired the sound of a tone (neutral stimulus) with the presentation of food (unconditioned stimulus) to elicit salivation (response). Through repeated pairings, the dogs eventually began to salivate in response to the tone alone.
During the acquisition phase, the brain forms connections between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, leading to the development of a conditioned response. This process signifies the establishment of the association between the two stimuli.
In simpler terms, acquisition in classical conditioning is like training the brain to link two things together so that one can trigger a response just like the other. It’s like teaching a dog to associate the sound of a bell with getting food, causing it to salivate at the sound alone.
How Does Acquisition Work?
Let’s discover, how exactly the acquisition works in classical conditioning.
Acquisition in classical conditioning happens through repeated pairings of a neutral stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). By associating the CS with the UCS over multiple trials, the CS alone eventually elicits a response known as the conditioned response (CR). This process creates an association between the two stimuli.
For instance, suppose you want to teach a rat to fear the sound of a hissing cat. You repeatedly pair the sound of hissing with a loud bang, which naturally elicits fear in the rat. After several pairings, the rat starts to display fear in response to the hissing sound alone.
Acquisition requires multiple pairings, and the number of trials needed may vary. Once the association is formed and the response is acquired, reinforcement can further strengthen the association. Continued pairing of the CS and UCS enhances the conditioned response.
Thus, acquisition in classical conditioning occurs through the repeated pairing of neutral and natural stimuli, leading to the development of a conditioned response. It’s like teaching the rat to associate the sound of hissing with fear, making it respond fearfully to the sound alone.
Factors Affecting the Acquisition Process
Let’s look at some of the factors that affect the acquisition process in classical conditioning. These factors determine how quickly and effectively new associations are formed. Here are the five key factors:
- The salience of the Stimulus: The noticeable or novel nature of the conditioned stimulus (CS) affects acquisition. More salient stimuli tend to lead to better and faster associations. For instance, a distinct bell sound will result in better acquisition than a subtle or commonly heard tone.
- Timing of the Association: The timing between the presentation of the CS and the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is crucial. Quick overlap between the two stimuli enhances acquisition. Delays in the association can slow down the learning process.
- Relevance of the Stimulus: The degree of relevance between the CS and the behavior being learned impacts acquisition. If the stimulus is unrelated, it may take longer for the association to form.
- Frequency of Pairings: The frequency of pairings between the CS and UCS influences the strength of the conditioned response. More frequent pairings generally result in stronger associations.
- Nature of the Behavior: Some behaviors are more naturally inclined to be acquired than others. For example, it may be easier to teach fear of snakes than fear of feather dusters.
Examples of Acquisition in Classical Conditioning
Let’s look at some examples of the acquisition principle of classical conditioning.
Example 1: Food Aversion
In classical conditioning, acquisition can be observed in the development of food aversions. Suppose a person eats a particular food (CS) and shortly after, experiences an episode of food poisoning (UCS) which leads to nausea and sickness (UCR).
After this pairing is repeated a few times, the person may start to feel nauseous (CR) simply at the sight or smell of that specific food. This acquired aversion serves as a protective mechanism, preventing the person from consuming potentially harmful food in the future. This example demonstrates how acquisition in classical conditioning can have real-life implications for survival and well-being.
Also Read: Conditioned Response (CR)
Example 2: Phobia Development
The acquisition is also evident in the development of phobias. Imagine a person who has a fear of dogs. If they had a traumatic experience (UCS) involving a dog, such as being bitten, and this experience is consistently paired with the sight or presence of dogs (CS), the person may acquire a conditioned fear response (CR) whenever they encounter dogs.
This acquired fear response is a result of the association formed between the traumatic experience and the stimulus. This example illustrates how acquisition in classical conditioning can lead to the development of irrational fears and phobias.
Example 3: Advertising and Branding
Acquisition plays a significant role in advertising and branding. Companies often pair their products or logos (CS) with positive emotions, attractive imagery, or desirable lifestyles (UCS) in advertisements. Through repeated exposure, consumers begin to associate the products with positive feelings and experiences, leading to an increased likelihood of purchasing those products in the future.
This demonstrates how acquisition in classical conditioning can be utilized by marketers to influence consumer behavior and brand preferences.
Example 4: Allergic Reactions
The acquisition can also be observed in the development of allergic reactions. If an individual with no preexisting allergies is exposed to a particular substance (CS), such as peanuts, and subsequently experiences an allergic reaction (UCR), their immune system associates the substance with the negative response.
As a result, future exposures to the substance can trigger an allergic reaction (CR). This example highlights how acquisition in classical conditioning can explain the development of allergies and hypersensitivity to specific stimuli.
Read Next: Conditioned Stimulus
- Cooper, L. (1991). Temporal factors in classical conditioning. Learning and Motivation, 22, 129-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/0023-9690(91)90020-9
- Gray, P. (2007). Psychology (6th ed.). Worth Publishers, NY.
- Eelen P. Classical conditioning: Classical yet modern. Psychol Belg. 2018;58(1):196–211. doi:10.5334/pb.451